Cryptography and Network Security Forouzan - Copy.pdf. : 4 x 1026 keys o with so many keys, might think is secure o but would be o problem is language characteristics, English Letter Frequencies 14 10 G HIJKLMNOPQRSTUV W X 'f Z, Use in Cryptanalysis o key concept - monoalphabetic substitution ciphers do not change relative letter frequencies o discovered by Arabian scientists in 9th century o calculate letter frequencies for ciphertext o compare counts/plots against known values, Example Cryptanalysis o given ciphertext: UZQSOVUOHXMOPVGPOZPEVSGZWSZOPFPESXUDBMETSXAIZ VUEPHZHMDZSHZOWSFPAPPDTSVPQUZWYMXUZUHSX EPYEPOPDZSZUFPOMBZWPFUPZHMDJUDTMOHMQ 0 count relative letter frequencies (see text) 0 guess P & Z are e and t 0 guess ZW is th and hence Z WP is the o proceeding with trial and error finally get: it was disclosed yesterday that several informal but direct contacts have been made with political representatives of the viet cong in moscow, Playfair Cipher not even the large number of keys in a monoalphabetic cipher provides security one approach to improving security was to encrypt multiple letters the Playfair Cipher is an example invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1854 but named after his friend Baron Playfair, Playfair Key Matrix a 5X5 matrix of letters based on a keyword fill in letters of keyword (sans duplicates) fill rest of matrix with other letters ego using the keyword MONARCHY w x, Encrypting and Decrypting plaintext is encrypted two letters at a time 1. Notes: KPS = Network Security - Private Communication in a Public World, by Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002. Announcing LinkedInâs Top 10 Company Pages of 2017, No public clipboards found for this slide, Student at Swami Vivekananda Subharti University, Meerut, Student at Srinivas Institute of Technology, Mangalore. Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 7 - Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 7 Fifth Edition by William Stallings * RC4 is a stream cipher designed in 1987 by Ron Rivest for RSA Security. Fifth Edition. Lots of links MA479/CSSE490 Cryptography. The CNS Pdf Notes book starts with the topics covering Information Transferring, Interruption, Interception, Services and Mechanisms, Network Security Model, Security, History, Etc. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. 1.1 Computer Security Concepts 9 1.2 The OSI Security Architecture 14 1.3 Security Attacks 15 1.4 Security Services 19 1.5 Security Mechanisms 23 1.6 A Model for Network Security 25 1.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 27 1.8 Key Terms,Review Questions,and Problems 29 PART ONE SYMMETRIC CIPHERS 31 Chapter 2 Classical Encryption Techniques 31 Thus preventing unauthorized access to information. Download Network Security And Cryptography seminar reports, ppt, pdf, Network Security And Cryptography Seminar Topics, Abstracts, Full Documentation, Source Code o Ciphertext: write out the columns in an order specified by a key. Sign In. For each approved PPT you will get 25 Credit Points and 25 Activity Score which will increase your profile visibility. It explains how programmers and network professionals can use cryptography to maintain the privacy of computer data. Uppsala U., Sweden. Cryptographic Tools o cryptographic algorithms important element in security services o review various types of elements symmetric encryption O public-key (asymmetric) encryption O digital signatures and key management O o secure hash functions o example is use to encrypt stored data, Symmetric Encryption o or conventional / private-key / single-key 0 sender and recipient share a common key o all classical encryption algorithms are private-key o was only type prior to invention of public- key in 1970's o and by far most widely used, Some Basic Terminology o plaintext - original message o ciphertext - coded message o cipher - algorithm for transforming plaintext to ciphertext o key - info used in cipher known only to sender/receiver, Some Basic Terminology o encipher (encrypt) - converting plaintext to ciphertext o decipher (decrypt) - recovering ciphertext from plaintext 0 cryptography - study of encryption principles/methods 0 cryptanalysis (codebreaking) - study of principles/ methods of deciphering ciphertext without knowing key o cryptology - field of both cryptography and cryptanalysis, Symmetric Cipher Model Secret key shared by sender and recipient x Plaintext Encryption algorithm input (e.g., AES) Transmitted ciphertext Secret key shared by sender and recipient Plaintext Decryption algorithm output (reverse of encryption algorithm), Requirements o two requirements for secure use of symmetric encryption: o a strong encryption algorithm a secret key known only to sender / receiver O 0 mathematically have: o assume encryption algorithm is known o implies a secure channel to distribute key, Cryptography o can characterize cryptographic system by: type of encryption operations used O substitution transposition product number of keys used O single-key or private two-key or public way in which plaintext is processed O block stream, Cryptanalysis o objective to recover key not just message o general approaches: cryptanalytic attack O brute-force attack O o if either succeed all key use compromised, Attacking Symmetric Encryption o cryptanalysis o rely on nature of the algorithm plus some knowledge of plaintext characteristics O even some sample plaintext-ciphertext pairs O exploits characteristics of algorithm to deduce O specific plaintext or key o brute-force attack try all possible keys on some ciphertext until get O an intelligible translation into plaintext, Cryptanalytic Attacks ciphertext only o only know algorithm & ciphertext, is statistical, know or can identify plaintext known plaintext o know/suspect plaintext & ciphertext chosen plaintext o select plaintext and obtain ciphertext chosen ciphertext o select ciphertext and obtain plaintext chosen text select plaintext or ciphertext to en/decrypt, Brute Force Search o always possible to simply try every key 0 most basic attack, proportional to key size 0 assume either know / recognise plaintext Key Size (bits) 32 56 128 168 26 characters (permutation) Number of Alternative Time required at 1 decryption/ps 232 256 2128 2168 Keys 4.3 x 109 7.2 x 1016 3.4 x 1038 3.7 x 1050 4 x 1026 231 us 255 us 2127 us 2167 s 2 x 1026 us 35.8 minutes 1142 years 5.4 x 1024 years 5.9 x 1036 years 6.4 x 1012 years Time required at 106 decryptions/ps 2.15 milliseconds 10.01 hours 5.4 x 1018 years 5.9 x 1030 years 6.4 x 106 years, Classical Substitution Ciphers o where letters of plaintext are replaced by other letters or by numbers or symbols o or if plaintext is viewed as a sequence of bits, then substitution involves replacing plaintext bit patterns with ciphertext bit patterns, Caesar Cipher 0 earliest known substitution cipher o by Julius Caesar 0 first attested use in military affairs o replaces each letter by 3rd letter on 0 example: meet me after the toga party PHHW PH DIWHU WKH WRJD SDUWB, Caesar Cipher 0 can define transformation as: abcdefghijk 1m nopqrstuvwxyz DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC 0 mathematically give each letter a number abcdef g h i j k 1 111 012345678 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 o then have Caesar cipher as: c: E(k, p) : (p + k) mod (26) p: D(k, c) : (c - k) mod (26), Cryptanalysis of Caesar Cipher only have 26 possible ciphers A maps to could simply try each in turn a brute force search given ciphertext, just try all shifts of letters, Monoalphabetic Cipher 0 rather than just shifting the alphabet 0 could shuffle (jumble) the letters arbitrarily 0 each plaintext letter maps to a different random ciphertext letter o hence key is 26 letters long Plain: abcde fghij klmnopqrstuvwxyz Cipher: DKVQFIBJWPESCXHTMYAUOLRGZN Plaintext : ifwewishtoreplaceletters Ciphertext: WIRFRWAJUHYFTSDVFSFUUFYA, Monoalphabetic Cipher Security o now have a total of 26! 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